Adult Head (Dynamic, Advanced):
The design of this phantom is based on an average human male head and it is made out of several realistic tissue-mimicking materials that are suitable for Ultrasound, X-Ray CT, and MRI applications.
This phantom consists of the following components:
- Anatomically correct realistic skull with temporal and suboccipital windows for transcranial Doppler ultrasound
- Openable and removable Calvaria
- Geometry and dimensions of an average brain
- Complex brain vessels incorporated Circle of Willis
Connecting vessels with the neck
- Brain ventricles (water fillable brain cavities to mimic change of pressure inside of the brain)
- Acoustically correct skin-mimicking material implemented to the skull (the phantom has an appearance of an actual human head)
The phantom is visible on Ultrasound, MR and CT scans. The brain parenchyma is made of an ultra-soft polyurethane-based material that mimics soft tissue and its anatomical shape was created based on the MRI scan of a human brain. The materials used to build the phantom are stable over time and they do not dry out.
The phantom comprises of realistic blood vessel which can be filled with any commonly used blood mimicking fluid with or without contrast agent. It also comprises of the entire ventricular system (lateral, third and fourth ventricles) which can be used to generate pressure inside the brain, and more closely approximate real cerebral anatomy. The ventricles are inflatable and can be filled with any liquid.
Prior imaging the phantom please fill the ventricles completely with water (or chosen contrast agent) using the tube on the back of the brain. After the ventricles are filled, plug the tube with removable blue silicone plug.
Figure 1. 3-Dimensional view of internal structure & image of the full head phantom with label of blood vessels (1 – Entry to 2mm vessel with stenosis, 2 – Entry to 4mm vessel, 3 – entry to 3mm superior vessel, 4 – entry to 3mm right lateral vessel with aneurysm).
|THERMAL PROPERTIES OF OUR BONE MIMICKING MATERIAL|
|Thermal Conductivity:||Volumetric Specific Heat Capacity:||Thermal Diffusivity:||Thermal Resistivity:||Specific Heat:||Speed of Sound:|
|0.776 W/ m K||1.040 MJ/ m^3 K||0.746 mm^2/ s||1.289 m K/ W||0.978 J/ g Deg Celsius||3070 m/s|